Signing Containers

You can use Cosign to sign containers with ephemeral keys by authenticating with an OIDC (OpenID Connect) protocol supported by Sigstore. Currently, you can authenticate with Google, GitHub, or Microsoft. For more information, read the Key management overview.

The format for keyless signing of a container is as follows.

$ cosign sign $IMAGE

NOTE: You will need access to a container registry for cosign to work with. offers free, short-lived (ie: hours), anonymous container image hosting if you just want to try these commands out.

To create a test image to sign using, run the following commands:

$ IMAGE_NAME=$(uuidgen)
$ cosign copy alpine $IMAGE

General signing format

The general signing format with the cosign sign command is as follows.

$ cosign sign [--key <key path>|<kms uri>] [--payload <path>] [-a key=value] [--upload=true|false] [-f] [-r] <image uri>

Sign with a local key pair

This usage is a common use case that uses traditional key signing from a key pair.

$ cosign sign --key cosign.key $IMAGE

If you need to generate local keys, you can do so by running cosign generate-key-pair. See Signing with Self-Managed Keys for more information.

Sign a container multiple times

Multiple signatures can be “attached” to a single container image. In this example, the container is signed and then signed again:

$ cosign sign $IMAGE

$ cosign sign $IMAGE

Add annotations with a signature

The -a flag can be used to add annotations to the generated, signed payload.

This flag can be repeated:

$ cosign sign -a foo=bar $IMAGE

These values are included in the signed payload under the Optional section.


They can be verified with the -a flag as part of the cosign verify command.

Sign and attach a certificate and certificate chain

You can sign a container and attach an existing certificate and certificate chain to an image. Note that you cannot currently generate a certificate chain but can use an existing chain.

$ cosign sign --certificate cosign.crt --certificate-chain chain.crt $IMAGE

Sign with a key pair stored elsewhere

Cosign can use environment variables and KMS (Key Management Service) APIs, in addition to fixed keys. When referring to a key managed by a KMS provider, cosign takes a go-cloud style URI to refer to the specific provider. The URI path syntax is provider specific.

$ cosign sign --key <some provider>://<some key> $IMAGE

Read more about this in our key management overview.

Key stored in an environment variable

$ cosign sign --key env://[ENV_VAR] $IMAGE

Key stored in Azure Key Vault

$ cosign sign --key azurekms://[VAULT_NAME][VAULT_URI]/[KEY] $IMAGE

Key stored in AWS KMS

$ cosign sign --key awskms://[ENDPOINT]/[ID/ALIAS/ARN] $IMAGE

Key stored in Google Cloud KMS

$ cosign sign --key gcpkms://projects/[PROJECT]/locations/global/keyRings/[KEYRING]/cryptoKeys/[KEY]/versions/[VERSION] $IMAGE

Key stored in Hashicorp Vault

$ cosign sign --key hashivault://[KEY] $IMAGE

Key stored in a Kubernetes secret

$ cosign sign --key k8s://[NAMESPACE]/[KEY] $IMAGE

Sign and upload a generated payload (in another format, from another tool)

The payload must be specified as a path to a file.

$ cosign sign --payload $IMAGE
Using payload from:

You can also sign with another tool. Cosign uses standard PKIX cryptographic formats, here’s a full example with openssl:

# Generate a keypair
$ openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out openssl.key
$ openssl ec -in openssl.key -pubout -out
# Generate the payload to be signed
$ cosign generate $IMAGE > payload.json
# Sign it and convert to base64
$ openssl dgst -sha256 -sign openssl.key -out payload.sig payload.json
$ cat payload.sig | base64 > payloadbase64.sig
# Upload the signature
$ cosign attach signature --payload payload.json --signature payloadbase64.sig $IMAGE

# Verify! Need to pass `--insecure-ignore-tlog` because attaching a signature
# doesn't upload it to the transparency log.
$ cosign verify --key --insecure-ignore-tlog $IMAGE

Verification for --
The following checks were performed on each of these signatures:
  - The cosign claims were validated
  - The signatures were verified against the specified public key
  - Any certificates were verified against the Fulcio roots.
{"critical":{"identity":{"docker-reference":""},"image":{"docker-manifest-digest":"sha256:124e1fdee94fe5c5f902bc94da2d6e2fea243934c74e76c2368acdc8d3ac7155"},"type":"cosign container image signature"},"optional":null}

Sign but skip upload (to store somewhere else)

The upload is skipped by using the --upload=false flag (default true). To capture the output use the --output-signature FILE and/or --output-certificate FILE flags.

$ cosign sign --upload=false --output-signature demo.sig --output-certificate demo.crt $IMAGE

Generate the Signature Payload with Cosign (to sign with another tool)

You can also use other tools for signing - not just cosign. This section will provide examples of how to sign with tools other than cosign.

GCP KMS with gcloud

To sign with gcloud kms, first use cosign generate to generate the payload and dump it into a JSON file:

$ cosign generate > payload.json

Sign the payload with gcloud kms:

$ gcloud kms asymmetric-sign \
      --digest-algorithm=sha256 \
      --input-file=payload.json \
      --signature-file=gcpkms.sig \
      --key=foo \
      --keyring=foo \
      --version=1 \

Base64 encode the signature into a temporary variable and use it to upload with cosign:

$ BASE64_SIGNATURE=$(cat gcpkms.sig | base64)
$ cosign attach signature --payload payload.json --signature $BASE64_SIGNATURE

Now (on another machine) use cosign to download signature bundle and dump into a JSON file:

$ cosign download signature > signatures.json

Extract a payload and signature value and dump into their own respective files:

$ cat signatures.json | tail -1 | jq -r .Payload | base64 -D > payload
$ cat signatures.json | tail -1 | jq -r .Base64Signature | base64 -D > signature

Download (on the same machine as the previous step) the public key:

$ gcloud kms keys versions get-public-key 1 --key=foo --keyring=foo --location=us-central1 > pubkey.pem

Finally, verify the signature with openssl:

$ openssl dgst -sha256 -verify pubkey.pem -signature gcpkms.sig payload

AWS KMS with aws

To use a AWS KMS CMK (Custom Master Key) for signing and verification, first create the CMK (just need to do this once) using the aws CLI (Version 2):

$ export AWS_CMK_ID=$(aws kms create-key --customer-master-key-spec RSA_4096 \
                                   --key-usage SIGN_VERIFY \
                                   --description "Cosign Signature Key Pair" \
                                   --query KeyMetadata.KeyId --output text)

Use cosign to generate the payload:

$ cosign generate > payload.json

Sign the payload with the AWS KMS CMK we created above:

$ aws kms sign --key-id $AWS_CMK_ID \
              --message file://payload.json \
              --message-type RAW \
              --signing-algorithm RSASSA_PKCS1_V1_5_SHA_256 \
              --output text \
              --query Signature > payload.sig

Upload the signature with cosign:

$ cosign attach signature --signature $(< payload.sig) --payload payload.json

Now (on another machine) use cosign to download signature bundle and dump into a JSON file:

$ cosign download signature > signatures.json

Extract the payload and signature value and dump into their own respective files:

$ cat signatures.json | tail -1 | jq -r .Base64Signature | base64 -D > remote_payload.sig
$ cat signatures.json | tail -1 | jq -r .Payload | base64 -D > remote_payload.json

Verify with AWS KMS using the CMK key we created in the first step:

$ aws kms verify --key-id $AWS_CMK_ID \
               --message file://remote_payload.json \
               --message-type RAW \
               --signing-algorithm RSASSA_PKCS1_V1_5_SHA_256 \
               --signature fileb://remote_payload.sig \
               --output text \
               --query SignatureValid

Upload a generated signature

The signature is passed via the --signature flag. It can be a file:

$ cosign attach signature --signature file.sig $IMAGE

Or, - for stdin for chaining from other commands:

$ cosign generate $IMAGE | openssl... | cosign attach signature --signature - $IMAGE
Pushing signature to: user/demo:sha256-87ef60f558bad79beea6425a3b28989f01dd417164150ab3baab98dcbf04def.sig

Signature location and management

Signatures are uploaded to an OCI artifact stored with a predictable name. This name can be located with the cosign triangulate command:

$ cosign triangulate $IMAGE

They can be reviewed with crane:

$ crane manifest $(cosign triangulate $IMAGE) | jq .
  "schemaVersion": 2,
  "mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json",
  "config": {
    "mediaType": "application/vnd.docker.container.image.v1+json",
    "size": 342,
    "digest": "sha256:f5de0db6e714055d48b4bb3a374e9630c4923fa704d9311da6a2740cf625aaba"
  "layers": [
      "mediaType": "application/",
      "size": 210,
      "digest": "sha256:1119abab63e605dcc281019bad0424744178b6f61ba57378701fe7391994c999",
      "annotations": {
        "dev.cosignproject.cosign/signature": "MEUCIG0ZmgqE3qTrHWp+HF9CrxsNH57Cck3cQI+zNNrUwSHfAiEAm+2eY/Z6ixQwjLbTraDN5ZB/P1Z5k/KwIoblry65r+s="
      "mediaType": "application/",
      "size": 219,
      "digest": "sha256:583246418c2afd5bfe29694793d07da37ffd552aadf8879b1d98047178b80398",
      "annotations": {
        "dev.cosignproject.cosign/signature": "MEUCIF/+szLKKA2q2+c86AXeWR7UeD5yYpW7p0waHordxNjhAiEAm5e+Hm7Jhv9JpSwHpTc6aGLSkL6/Acm/z+b8mhfGXqY="

Some registries support deletion too (DockerHub does not):

$ cosign clean $IMAGE